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Final Paper - Citations

Use and Formatting of In-Text Citations and References

Ronald B. Mitchell

Use footnotes sparingly and only to add text that you feel is important to the argument but would break up the flow of the argument if included as text. For all citations, use the in-text citation method described here. By this point your paper should have at least seven different articles, chapters, books, etc. that you will use as references. These must include at least three articles from journals. I strongly encourage you to provide me with ten or more references, since by now the research for your paper should be well underway. You are required to use the following guidelines for formatting your references. Do not use any other style of references. If you type your references into a document now, you won’t have to retype them for your paper later.

For EACH reference, provide a sentence or two laying out the main variables that the author(s) of that article or book argue are most important in explaining the dependent variable they are seeking to explain.


IN-TEXT CITATIONS are the components of author, year, and page that you insert in the text of the document. General rules for IN-TEXT CITATIONS are:Use page numbers for citations whenever citing a specific quote.All in-text citations use the following form (Author Year, pages ) or (Author, Author, and Author Year, pages).Do not put a comma between author and year but do put one between year and pages.Punctuation sequence is (there is NOT a period within the quotation marks):no period- close quote-space-open parenthesis-author last name-space-year-comma-space-page number-close parenthesis-periodTwo citations are separated by a semicolon.You must include a page number if you are using an exact quotation, and you should use a page number if the idea being cited does not constitute the overall theme of the book or article, but is a specific subpoint.Examples:

Direct quote: "Call me Ishmael" (Melville 1978, 1). Paraphrase: All unhappy families are different (Tolstoy 1954, 1). Argument summary: Many authors rank Melville as the best American author (Smith, 1962; Jones, 1978).


REFERENCES are the full description of an article, chapter, book, website, etc. that are placed as entries in the "Works Cited" or "Bibliography" section at the end of your paper. They clarify the IN-TEXT CITATIONS that are placed in the body of the paper. General rules for REFERENCES are: All reference types use the following order: Author (last name first) – Year – Title – Source.In multi-authored references, second and subsequent author is first name first.Journal articles: include volume number, issue number, date, and pages – yes, you need them all.Parts of titles in quotes are capitalized like sentences, parts of titles italicized are formatted with all significant words capitalized.In websites, make sure to include date of document if available, but always date accessed.

Punctuation rules: Periods inside (not outside) quote marks of title. Period after author(s), year, title, source.

Journal Article:

Keohane, Robert O. 1986. "Reciprocity in international relations." International Organization 40:1 (Winter), 1-27.

Jacobson, Harold K., and Edith Brown Weiss. 1995. "Improving compliance with international environmental accords." Global Governance 1:2 (June), 119-148.


Litfin, Karen T. 1994. Ozone Discourses: Science and Politics in Global Environmental Cooperation. New York: Columbia University Press.

M’Gonigle, R. Michael, and Mark W. Zacher. 1979. Pollution, politics, and international law: tankers at sea. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Edited book:

Katzenstein, Peter, ed. 1996. The Culture of National Security: Norms and Identity in World Politics. New York: Columbia University Press.

Haas, Peter M., Robert O. Keohane, and Marc A. Levy, eds. 1993. Institutions for the Earth: Sources of Effective International Environmental Protection. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Chapter in edited book:

Young, Oran. 1983. "Regime dynamics: the rise and fall of international regimes." In International Regimes, ed. Stephen D. Krasner. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 93-113.

Axelrod, Robert, and Robert O. Keohane. 1986. "Achieving cooperation under anarchy: strategies and institutions." In Cooperation under Anarchy, ed. Kenneth Oye. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 226-254.


Trexler, Mark C. 1989. "The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora: political or conservation success?" Doctoral dissertation. University of California, Berkeley, CA.

Web site:

UNFCCC Secretariat. 1997. Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. Bonn, Germany: UNFCCC Secretariat ( Document dated: 11 December 1997. Document accessed: 5 January 2000.

Ramsar Convention Bureau. 1996. Management Guidance Procedure Report Issued for Nariva Swamp. Gland, Switzerland: Ramsar Convention Bureau ( Document dated: 16 October 1996. Document accessed: 5 January 2000.

Making Citations and Bibliographies Easy

When completing your paper, you are likely to spend considerable time trying to complete your footnotes and bibliography of references. This memo is simply to suggest a way to avoid some, if not all of that pain. The major message is simply to be organized in keeping track of your references as you go along. DO NOT tell yourself "Oh, I will worry about getting the citations later, I have to get this written now." It WILL take you ten times as long to find the source and page number later as doing it then and there.

Major Steps to an Easy Completion of Footnotes/Endnotes and References:

Create a new file in your computer today called "references.doc"Whenever you start to read a book, article, or government document, open references.doc and type in the full citation including all the information noted earlier in this memo.Take the time now to format the citation properly as well. You have to do it sometime, why not now. After awhile, you will get used to the formatting style and do it automatically.Whenever you take notes, make sure that you keep track of the exact page number from which you are taking notes, even if you are not taking exact quotes.Generally, it is better to carefully right down the full and exact quotes rather than to paraphrase. If you keep the full quote, you can paraphrase later without re-looking at the source; if you paraphrase now, you will need to re-find the source to get the exact quote.Once you start writing, make sure you include appropriate citations as you go along, including page numbers. It really will be a hassle later (trust me) if you don’t do this now.Check with your advisor to see what the expectation is, but many of you may find that in-text citations with a bibliography at the end is acceptable. If so, that is by far the easiest way of doing your citations.

If you keep a properly formatted bibliography of all your potential sources going from the beginning, then your bibliography is done when your note-taking is done. If you keep good citations as you write, then your footnoting/endnoting is done when you finish your writing. Much easier than saving them to the end.

Making it even easier:

Everyone should follow the steps above. In addition, however, you may want to look into some commercial footnoting programs. I use Endnote, but ProCite and RefManager are also good programs. These programs allow you to type a citation into a database once and then use it as an integrated part of your word processor when doing citations. I find it to be well worth the $100 you spend on the software.Major advantages of using the software are:Don’t have to type in many of your citations, since you can connect directly to Socrates and download any source in Socrates directly to your database.Makes finding a reference easy, since all of them are in your database.Makes putting in a citation easy because you toggle to your database, type the first few letters of the authors name, and then type one keystroke to insert the name and year of the source directly into your Word or WordPerfect document.

When you are done, a couple of keystrokes generates a properly formatted bibliography quickly and easily. It goes through your whole document and generates a reference list of only those sources you have cited. It make sure book titles are underlined, journal articles are italicized, etc., without you having to do it.